1. a place where decontextualized objects and/or information are presented.
b. a collection of artefacts set aside for contemplation, reflection.

1. consisting of individual units; measureable.
a. having to do with ionizing radiation
3. sub-atomic; nuclear phenomena.
x. invisible; powerful.
a. o f bodies too small to be divided; of indivisible invisibles.

Z. the possible combinations, changes, or states of being in a system
L. collage, cut-up, active recombination
n. (Math.) variation of the order of a series.

enlarge, multiply, increase
magnification! enhance
"reduce , v.t., ...convert to other form; suit or adapt to; ... subdue; ..."[Oxford Dict.: 1931]
3. To put in order systematically.
4. To spearate into orderly components by analysis.
5. To bring to a certain state.
7. Chem. a. To decrease the valence of (an atom) by adding electrons.
8. To lose weight, as by dieting.
[origin: Latin reducere, to bring back.][Am. Her. Dict.: 1973]

adduce, v.t., cite as proof or instance.
[Oxford Dict.: 1931]
To cite as an example or means of proof. [origin: Latin adducere, to bring to (someone).][Am. Her. Dict.: 1973]


(ant.) concrete
"adj. Considered apart from concrete existence or a specification thereof.
2. Theoretical; not applied or practical.
3. Thought or stated without reference to a specific instance."
[American Heritage Dictionary: 198?]
  • While still confined to worlds not-here, not-now, MAp de-abstracts, tells more concrete Stories from the dose/response curve, more familiar modes of representation in the collection.
    Obviously, a web page is read, the body inert. The ACTION of MAp is still contemplative, still mediated. But, already, reading IS participatory.
  • Fortunately, relatively few people have any direct experience with the biological effects of radiation. Using/Focusing on BEIR dramatizes scientific processes, writes them large(? legibility? Barthes "on Wrestling"?)

    In order to construct a dose/response curve most of (human) experience must be ignored. This requirement of instrumental reason, the process of reduction for the sake of abstraction is not so poignant (nor so puzzling) when the systems of objects studied do not consist of human beings (note: the ubiquitious personification technique of pedagogy [not to mention the nightly "news"!]). The posture of neutrality seems a more likely story when the analysis concerns the events of atoms, gases, masses.

    MAp aims not to condemn scientific practices and technologic development, simply, but to turn up the critical flame by relating the lived experiences, the social realities of the global laboratory.
    1. by historicizing data points. (archaeology?)
    2. mixing popular culture accounts with specialist scientific studies source material. (pop norms + science forms = MAp)

    Examine the TRADITION "we" USE
    "... Is it not rather the case that tradtions that GIVE SUBSTANCE TO THE LIVES OF PEOPLE must be given equal rights and equal acces to key positions in society no matter what other tradtions think about them? Must we not demand that ideas and procedures that give substanc e to the lives of people be made full members of a free society no matter what other tradtions think about them?"
    [original emphasis {MAp caps}] [Feyerabend, Science in a Free Society: 197? ] p. 24?

biological effects of radiation:
what happens when energy passes through living matter?

radiation: The dissemination of energy from a source. ... The term is applied to electromagnetic waves (gamma-rays, x-rays, light, infrared, radio waves etc) and to sub-atomic particles (alpha particles, beta particles, protons, neutrons etc). It is also applied to acoustic waves.

"denaturalize: v.t. change nature of; divest of citizenship" [The Little Oxford Dict.: 1931]
("render unfit for eating" -?)

tracer atom: Labelled atom introduced into a system to study structure or progress of a process.

tracer element: One of the radioelements, e.g., radiophophorus, used for experiments in which its radioactive properties enable its location to be determined and followed. Tracer technique may be applied to physiological, biological, pathological and technological experiments.
Chambers Nulcear Energy and Radiation Dictionary, P.M.B. Walker, ed. [ 1992]

One of the aspects which emerges in MAp: fallibility of science.
"Every technology carries its risks ... To overlook the fallibility of technology is 'to practice dissimulation, ensure disinformation, and so contribute to a loss of confidence in the effects of science' (81). [Virilio] urges exposing the accident in order not to be exposed to it, making room in public information for fallibility. Virilio's proposed solution is to establish a museum of accidents, ... concludes that this ... already exists: the TV." [Penley 49]

Semiosphere: the reality of human thought in action, the substance of intersubjectivity. the perception and communication of reality.
the symbolic and imaginary world, constituted by human communication. Includes meanings, beliefs, values, ideologies, norms, myths ....

"the point here is not to refute fantasmatic thinking with empirical evidence or to try to solve mysteries by replacing fantasies with facts. ... Rather the issue is to demand better science while acknowledging the work of fantasy in everyday life, popular culture, and scientific practice. In the end, one can get at the empirical only through understanding the omnipresence of fantasmatic thought." [61]
"the aim here is not to separate fact from fantasy but to show how each embodies a distinct kind of knowledge and how one is deeply implicated in the other. Both kinds of knowledge deserve to be evaluated without one cancelling the other." Constance Penley, NASA/TREK [62]
"Why, then, does NASA remain a repository for utopian meanings? Obviously public attitudes toward NASA are not based solely on scientific achievement or political spin control. We process our knowledge of NASA in a variety of more or less unconscious ways, ranging from simple displacement to ourtright denial. A lot of this individual and collective refashioning of NASA's meanings tends to be wish-fulfilling, to produce the NASA we want, not the one we have." [Penley 15]
"Entertainment, for Sagan, is the opposite of enlightenment; popular science and science cannot coexist because popular science ('irrationality') confounds the progress of science ('rationality').
... Sagan's total dismissal of all popular engagement with the world of science and technology ... means that so much of the popular investment in science and technology that I want to show is the warp and woof of American culture remains invisible, and scially unaccounted for." [6]
"The X Files ... uses that which has been declared outside the bounds of science to challenge the categories and methods of science. It is fully skeptical, but its skepticism is turned toward the complicity of establishment science and the government in resisting people who believe that science is too important to be left to the scientists. Sagan also misses the humor ... and how that humor is used to mock the pretensions and secretiveness of scientific-government institutions. ...
If Sagan cannot appreciate the levels of irony and humor ... he certainly would not be able to recognize what fans ... are doing with the show." [7]

I gleaned this term from Tom Jagtenberg and David McKie, Eco-Impacts: The Greening of Post-Modernity [Thousand Oaks: Sage, 1997], who say this [p. 1]:
The effects of exploding human populations and their material and cultural infrastructures---from agriculture and industry to administration and popular culture---are remorseless. In this complex dialectic, culture and communication have material force: They are material processes as well as also being symbolic and imaginary.
Communication, culture, and society have always been intrinsically ecological-- that is, they do not stand outside the stream of which they are a part. ... The semiosphere and the biosphere, as we argue, are entwined. When we act on the world in a planned way, we operate symbolically: We cut, dig, gouge, hack, build, enclose and otherwise shape the environment in ways that reflect cultural norms, myths, archetypes, and ideologies. Such action is intrinsic to being in the world; it is also communicative.

recombinant history
reanimating oblique/obscure histories of science. hybrid life form like Frankensteins's monster. reviviing dead matter, public secrets [Peney 36]. Re-presenting; re-appropriating; montage of stories; assembling fragments.

n. 1. features of a place or a description of them.
B. The art of graphically representing on a map the exact physical configuration of a place or region.
topographical amnesia:
paul virilio claims that with the advance of technological techniques of imaging has come "the progressive disintegration of a faith in perception" [p. 16] as "delocalized language" [p. 6] grows, "depersonalisation, primarily of the thing observed but also of the observer" of the world [30]
the relation between "know-how" (tekhne) and "doing" (poiein) [p.27] become disjunct [as in Giroux] in the "perpetual perfecting of means-ends relationships" [28].
quotes Valery [29] "Man has exteded his means ofperception and action much more than his means of representation and summation."
as with the detective: "the human eye no longer gives signs of recognition, it no longer organises the search for truth, it no longer presides over the construction of truth's image" [43] obviously, this is the case for subatomic processes. The witnesses are "electronic microscopes, mass spectometers and laser videographs. ... "
"legal representatives .. have lost any hope of creating within [the court arena] a reality-effect capable of captivating the jury and audience for whom video recorders, networking systems like Minitel, television and sundry computers have become a virtually exclusive way of gathering information, communicating and understanding reality and moving about in it."[44]
"the instrumental splitting of modes of perception and representation" [49] under "the absolute culmination of the inexorable march of progress of representational technologies" [47]

Penley [10]: "Popular science envisions a science that boldly goes where no one has gone before but remains answerable to human needs and social desires." {can be quoted at more length}; [5] "yearning to get a personal grip on that seemingly distant realm [of science and technology]. ...
Recognizing and accepting this popular will to do science does not come easy, especially when 'the experts' start from the assumption that most citizens are shamefully ignorant of scientific issues." (i.e. Sagan "Entertainment, for Sagan, is the opposite of enlightenment.") [9] "The all want to get a human grip on the world of science and technology, a project whose most compelling metaphor or script is that of going into space."

"remembering ... is never simple: we misremember and disremember, select and repress, trivalize and romaniticize." Penley [59]
on the desire to know, to speak the horror of the Challenger's bodies:
"This desire to know, no matter how shot through with fantasmatic thinking---disavowal, guilt, projection, overidentification, and all the rest--is a desire whose reality and efficacy must be acknowledged. ... knowing is infinietely better than not know ... renarrativizing value of empirical knowledge."

collecting stories:
social reality:
Science is just another set of stories about the world and not transcendent and universal Truth. popular culture is the source of most people's stories about science. As Dorothy Nelkin puts it,
in Selling Science: How the Press Covers Science and Technology [N.Y.: W.H. Freeman & Co., 1995]
Many factors enter the reader's social context, including the cumulative influence of past media images and various alternative sources of information and imagery, such as fictional television stories, documentaries, comic strips, and other vehicles of popular culture. In a content analysis of 1600 television programs broadcast between 1969 and 1979, George Gerbner, professor of communications at the University of Pennsylvania, found that science appeared less in television news than it did in entertainment and science-fiction programs.
Counter measures for the theoretical domination of scientific reduction. While this is not a sociology of knowledge, it shares the ground. Like the imperative for Berger and Luckmann's sociology of knowledge, "must concern itself with everything that passes for 'knowledge' in society." [14] (original emphasis)
"To exaggerate the importance of theoretical thought in society and history is a natural failing of theorizers. It is then all the more necesssary to correct this intellectualistic misapprehension. The theoretical formulations of reality, whether they be scientific or philosophical or even mythological, do not exhaust what is 'real' for the members of a society. Since this is so, the sociology of knowledge must first of all concern itself with what people 'know' as 'reality' in their everyday, non- or pre-theoretical lives. In other words, commonsense 'knowledge' rather than 'ideas' must be the central focus for the sociology of knowledge. It is precisely this 'knowledge' that constitutes the fabric of meanings without which no society could exist." [15]

"our purpose ... is a sociological analysis of the reality of everyday life, more precisely, of knowledge that guides conduct in everyday life"
A common fallacy, i.e., cogito ergo sum puts thinking ABOVE being, including above social being, e.g., language itself.

Social Questions at the root of scientific judgement:
Obviously, there is an ethical barrier barring science from doing the controlled studies of human subjects necessary for gaining this information. The fact of the matter is there still exists a high degree of scientific uncertainty in the assessment of risks from radiation, especially at low levels. Here's how one of the nuclear industry's standard references characterizes the situation:
[T]he process of setting meaningful radiation standards cannot begin until sufficient experimental or epidemiologic information exists to permit estimates of risk coefficients to be made. This was not always so. Prior to about 1950 it was thought that there were threshold doses below which radiation injury would not occur. However, once it was accepted that the genetic and carcinogenic effects of radiation are stochastic [i.e., random] as well as nonthreshold, the problem of standards setting became more difficult. The question was no longer "what dose is safe" but "how safe is safe enough." This no longer involved purely scientific judgement; it is a question that could only be answered by making social judgements.
-Merril Eisenbud [Environmental Radioactivity, p.40, chapter 2 "The Biological Basis of Radiation Protection." 3rd edition, 1987 Academic Press.]
Decisions that rest upon the risks of radiation cannot be made strictly according to scientific principles. They must involve the public, they must be made democratically, socially.

!!!!!!!!!!-- --_________----------------_________

De-Reduction, amplifying, Re-contextualizing the Dose-Response curve, Re-Familiarizing, Historicizing, humanizing
Mathematical curves and museums alike decontextualize their subjects.

A. Philosophy-Science: toward critical awareness of the processes of reduction, the artifice, generally. Applying mathematical models is not neutral; equating what is not equal.

B. Politically: serves to limit discourse to experts, facilitating unilateral flows of info; authority; abstruse naming. When the data points consist of human suffering, scientific decisions are more obviously social. [experts beholden to industry]

C. Fantasies as return of the repressed of scientific reduction and military secrets. Most peoples ideas of science come from the media, so include the familiar.
1. Tracing the semiosphere (idiosyncratic, non-priveledged). Multiple simultaneous systems of meaning [contra: G.U.T. instinct]-competing values.
2. Imagination: filling/leaping gaps--Eben Byers

BAD:when the lab becomes the world we are all interested and the guise of neutrality of science wears thin. Risks from above.
GOOD: enhances environmental sciences by tracing pathways.

the point is not to simply condemn nuclear knowledge, rather, to understand our subject positions, how we are constructed as nuclear subjects.

tracer atom: Labelled atom introduced into a system to study structure or progress of a process.
Chambers Nulcear Energy and Radiation Dictionary, P.M.B. Walker, ed. [1992]
MAp uses a semiological tracer technique. Collecting/registering stories about the biological effects of radiation provides a kind of x ray of the human environment, reveals pathways of authority, consumersim... Imaging the semiosphere. Magnifying normal social phenomena, making more visible.

Tracing the semiosphere


I detest greasy objectivity, and harmony, the science that finds everything in order.
-Tristan Tzara, "Dada Manifesto 1918"


Our bodies no longer map our worlds most effectively/efficiently; our machines analyses of time and space supercede our stories; money, Our primary substance.


task oriented; topics given.